ANNOUNCING PUBLICATION OF PAPERS ON RESULTS OF TWO YEAR EXPERIMENT
Biosphere 2: Description, Purpose, and Conceptual Design - John Allen, Chairman, Biospheres, LLC
Allen, J.P., M.Nelson, and A. Alling. 2002. “The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of Biospherics and Closed Ecological Systems.” COSPAR. (in press). F4.1-0002-02.
Allen, J. and Alling, A. 2002. “The Design Approach for Mars on Earth™, A Biospheric Closed System Testing Facility for Long-term Space Habitation.” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. IAA.8.2.02.
Allen, J. 2002. “People Challenges in Biospheric Systems for Long-Term Habitation in Remote Areas, Space Stations, Moon, and Mars Expeditions.” Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vo. 8 pp. 67-70. Cognizant Communications.
Allen, J. 2001. “Artificial Biospheres as a Model for Global Ecology on Planet Earth.” Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol. 7, No. 3.
Allen, J. and M. Nelson. 1999. “Biospherics and Biosphere 2, Mission One (1991-1993).” Ecological Engineering 13. pp. 15-29. Elsevier.
Allen, J., 1997. "Biospheric Theory and Report on Overall Biosphere 2: Design and Performance During Mission One (1991-1993)." Journal of Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol. 4., No. 3/4.
Buckminster Fuller's Synergetic Algorithm and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century (1996) - John P. Allen, Chairman, Cyberspheres, Inc.
Historical Overview of the Biosphere 2 Project (1990) - John P. Allen, Director of Research and Development, Space Biospheres Ventures
Biospheres and Solar System Exploration (1990) - Dr. Thomas O. Paine, Chairman National Commission on Space
Allen, J. and M. Nelson. 1989. "Ecology and Space". Biological Sciences in Space, Vol. 3, No. 1, March.
Alling, A. M. Nelson, S. Silverstone, M. Van Thillo. 2002. “Human Factor Observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, Closed Life Support Human Experiment and its Application to a Long-Term Manned Mission to Mars.” Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol 8 (in press). Cognizant Communications.
Alling, A., M. Nelson, L. Leigh, R. Frye, N. Alvarez-Romo, T. MacCallum, and J. Allen. 1993. "Experiments on the Closed Ecological System in the Biosphere 2 Test Module." Ecological Microcosms. Springer-Verlag, New York by H.T. Odum and R. Beyers. Pp. 463-479.
Biospheric Theory and Report on Overall Biosphere 2 Design and Performance During Mission One (1991-1993) - John Allen, FLS
Alling, A., L. Leigh, T. McCallum and N. Alvarez-Romo. 1990. "Biosphere 2 Test Module Experimentation Program". Biological Life Support Systems, Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities, (ed.) Mark Nelson and Gerald Soffen. Synergetic Press/NASA Conf. Publication #3094.
Atkinson, M.J., H.Barnett, H. Aceves, C. Langdon, S.J. Carpenter, T.McConnaughey, E. Hochberg, M. Smith, B.D.V.Marino. 1999. “The Biosphere 2 Coral Reef Biome.” Ecological Engineering 13. pp. 147-171. Elsevier.
Augustine, M. 1987. Biosphere 2: Large Scale Earth Models. Aerospace Century XX1, vol. 64. pp. 1305 -1312. Series of the American Astronautical Society.
Augustine, M. “ Biosphere 2: The Closed Ecology Project.” American Astronautical Society. 86-119
Calderwood, J. A., A. M. Wenner, and J. K. Wetterer. 1999. Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) invade Santa Cruz Island, California. pp. 274-277 Proceedings of 5th California Islands Symposium, Santa Barbara, CA.
Cronise, R., D. Noever, and A. Brittain. 1995. Self-organized Criticality in Closed Ecosystems; Carbon Dioxide Fluctuations in Biosphere 2. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 16, 1-6.
Dempster, W.F., M.V.Thillo, A.Alling, J.P.Allen, S.Silverstone, and M.Nelson. 2002. “Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility.” COSPAR. (in press). F4.2-0006-02
Dempster, W. 1999. “Biosphere 2 Engineering Design.” Ecological Engineering 13. pp. 31-42 Elsevier.
Dempster, W. 1997. Biosphere 2 Engineering and Design: Closure & Energy. LS&BS, Vol. 4., No. 3/4.
Dempster, W. 1994. Methods for Measurement and Control of Leakage in CELSS and Their Application and Performance in the Biosphere 2 Facility. COSPAR. Advances in Space Research, Vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 331-335.
Dempster, W. and M.V.Thillo. 1993. “Maintenance & Operational Support Characteristics of Biosphere 2.” American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics. AIAA 93-4181
Dempster, W. 1993. System Dynamics and Observations During the Initial Two-Year Closure Trial. 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, Colorado, SAE Technical Paper Series 932290.
Dempster, W. 1992. "Biosphere 2: Overview of System Performance During the First Nine Months." 22nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, SAE Technical Paper Series 921129.
Dempster, W. 1991. "Biosphere 2: Design Approaches to Redundancy and Back-up." 21st International Conference on Environmental Systems, SAE Technical Paper Series 911328.
Dempster, W. 1990. "Biosphere 2 Project Status: Design of a Closed Manned Terrestrial Ecological System." 20th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, SAE Technical Paper Series 901233.
Dempster. W. 1990. “Biosphere 2: Closed Ecological Systems Engineering.” Engineering, Construction & Operations in Space II. Proceedings of Space 90. Vol.2. pp. 1206 1214.
Dempster, W. 1989. “Biosphere 2: Technical Overview of a Manned Closed Ecological System.” 19th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, CA. SAE Technical Paper Series 891599.
Dempster, W. 1988. " Biosphere 2: Design of a Closed, Manned Terrestrial Ecosystem." 18th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems. SAE Technical Paper Series 881096.
Dustan, D., S. Chakrabarti, and A. Alling. 2000. “ Mapping and Monitering the Health and Vitality of Coral Reefs from Satellite: A Biospheric Approach.” Journal of Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol. 7, pp.149-159.
Finn, M. 1996. “The Mangrove Mesocosm of Biosphere 2: Design, Establishment and Preliminary Results.” Ecological Engineering 6. pp. 21-56. Elsevier.
Frye. R. and C. Hodges. 1990. Soil Bed Work of the ERL in Support of Research and Development of Biosphere 2. Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities. Synergetic Press/NASA Conf. Publication #3094.
Leigh, L. 1987. “An Introduction to the Intensive Agricultural Biome of Biosphere 2.” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. pp. 76-81.
Levinskich, M.A., G.I. Meleshko, V.N. Sytchov, Shepelev, M. Nelson, T. McCallum. 1981. ‘The Study of an Aquatic Microcosm Model ‘Algae-Fish-Microorganisms’ Under the Condition of Spaceflight.” Russian Publication.
MacCallum, T., M. Nelson, J.P. Allen, L.S.Leigh, A. Alling, N. Alvarez-Romo. 1991. "The Biosphere 2 Project and its Applications for Space Exploration and Mars Settlement", The Case for Mars IV, Volume 76, Science and Technology Series, American Astronautical Society, San Diego.
Nelson, M. 2002. “Earth Applications of Closed Ecological Systems: Relevance to the Development of Sustainability in our Global Biosphere.” COSPAR. (in press). F4.1-0003-02
Nelson, M. 2002. “Initial Experimental Results from the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility.” COSPAR. (in press). F4.1-0016-02
Nelson, M. 2001. “Living off the Land: Resource Efficiency of Wetland Wastewater Treatment.” Advances in Space Research Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 1547-1556. Elsevier
Nelson, M., Finn, M., Wilson, C., Zabel, B. van Thillo, M., Hawes, P., and Fernandez, R. 1999 Bioregenerative Recycle of Wastewater in Biosphere 2 using a constructed wetland: Two Year Results, Ecological Engineering 13. pp. 189-197. Elsevier.
Nelson, M. 1998. "Litterfall and Decomposition Rates in Biosphere 2 Terrestrial Biomes (1992-1993)." Ecological Engineering. Vol. 1. Nos. 1-4. Elsevier.
Nelson, M. 1998. “Wetland Systems for Bioregenerative Reclamation of Waste Water: From Closed Systems to Developing Countries.” Life Support and Biosphere. Science, Vol. 5. pp. 357-369.
Nelson, M. 1997. “Nutrient Recycling in Biosphere 2.” Life Support and Biosphere. Science, Vol. 4. No.3/4. pp. 145-153.
Nelson, M. 1997. “Bioregenerative Life Support for Space Habitation & Extended Planetary Missions.” Fundamentals of Space Sciences. Vol. 2. pp. 315-336.
Nelson, M. and W. Dempster. 1996. “Living in Space: Results from Biosphere 2’s Initial Closure, an Early Testbed for Closed Ecological Systems on Mars.” American Astronautical Society: Science & Technology Series. Vol. 86, pp.363-390. AAS 95-488
Nelson, M., W. Dempster, N. Alvarez-Romo, T. MacCallum. 1994. Atmospheric Dynamics and Bioregenerative Technologies in a Soil-based Ecological Life Support System: Initial Results from Biosphere 2. Advances in Space Research. Vol 14, No. 11.pp. 417-426.
Nelson, M. and W. Dempster, 1993. "Biosphere 2 -- A New Approach to Experimental Ecology." Environmental Conservation, Vol. 30, Number 1, Spring.
Nelson M., T. Burgess, A. Alling, N. Alvarez-Romo, W. Dempster, R. Walford, and J. Allen. 1993. Using a closed Ecological System to study Earth's biosphere: Initial results from Biosphere 2. BioScience 43 (4): 225-236.
Nelson, M., S. Silverstone, J. Poynter, 1993. "Biosphere 2 Agriculture: Test Bed for Intensive, Sustainable, Non-Polluting Farming Systems, Outlook on Agriculture, Vol. 22, Number 3.
Nelson, M. and A. Alling. 1993. "Biosphere 2 and its Lessons for Long-duration Space Habitats". In: Faughnan, ed., Space Manufacturing 9. The High Frontier: Accession, Development and Utilization. AIAA, Wash, D.C. P. 280-287.
Nelson, M. Feb.1991. “Leaving the Planetary Cradle.” World and I Magazine. pp.288-295.
Nelson, M. May 1991. "The Emerging Science of Biospherics." World and I Magazine. pp.274 –283.
Nelson, M. and K.Dyhr. 1991. “Bioshere 2 Project: Laboratory for Biospherics and Long-term Space Life Support Systems.” Space: A Call for Action. Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Space Development Conference. Univelt Inc. pp. 365-375. SDC 91-016
Nelson, M., L. Leigh, A. Alling, T. MacCallum, J. Allen, N. Alvarez-Romo. 1991. "Biosphere 2 Test Module: A Ground-Based Sunlight-Driven Prototype of a Closed Ecological System." Advances in Space Research, Vol.12, number 5, pp. 211-217. Pergamon Press.
Nelson, M., J.P. Allen, and W. Dempster. 1991. "Biosphere 2: Prototype Project for a Permanent and Evolving Life System for a Mars Base." Pages 211-218 in R.D. MacElroy, M.M. Averner, T.W. Tibbitts, B.B. Bugbee, G. Horneck, and E.H. Dunlop, eds. Advances in Space Research: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Nelson, M., K.Dyhr, and P.Hawes. 1990. “Biosphere 2: Laboratory, Architecture, Paradigm & Symbol.” International Synergy Journal. No. 10, pp. 59-75
Nelson, M. 1990. "The Biotechnology of Space Biospheres", Fundamentals of Space Technology, ed. by Asashima & Malacinski, Springer-Verlag.
Nelson, M. and G. Soffen (editors). 1990. Biological Life Support Technologies, Synergetic Press/NASA Conference Publication #3094.
Odum, H.T. 1996. "Scales of Ecological Engineering". Ecological Engineering 6 (1996) 7 - 19.
Paglia, D.E., and R.L. Walford. 19--. “Erythrocyte Metabolic Alterations in Response to Combined Hypoxia and Caloric Restriction in Crew of Biosphere 2.” American Journal of Physiology. (in review)
Paine, T.O. 1990. "Biospheres and Solar System Exploration." Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities. Synergetic Press/ NASA Conference Publication #3094.
Peterson, J., A. Haberstock, T. Siccama, K. Vogt, D. Vogt, and B. Tusting. 1992. The Making of Biosphere 2. Restoration and Management Notes 10(2): 158-168.
Salisbury, F., W.F. Dempster, J.P. Allen, A. Alling, D. Bubenheim, M. Nelson and S. Silverstone, 2002. “Light, Plants, and Power for Life Support on Mars.” Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol 8,(in press). Cognizant Communications.
Scribner, K. and J. Avise. 1994. Cytonuclear Genetics of Experimental Fish Hybrid Zones Inside Biosphere 2. Proc. Nat'l. Academy of Science, Vol. 91, pp. 5066-5069, May, 1994.
Severinghaus, J.P. , W. Broecker, W. Dempster, T. MacCallum, and M. Wahlen. 1994. Oxygen Loss in Biosphere 2. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 33, 35-37.
Silverstone, S.E., R.R. Harwood, E.Franco-Vizcaino, J. Allen, and M. Nelson. 1999. “Soil in the Agricultural Area of Biosphere 2 (1991-1993).”Ecological Engineering. 13. pp. 179-188. Elsevier.
Silverstone, S. and M. Nelson. 1996. “Food Production and Nutrition in Biosphere 2: Results from the First Mission September 1991 to September 1993.” Adv. Space Res. Vol. 18, No. 4/5 pp. 49-61.
Silverstone, S. 1997. “Food Production and Nutrition for the Crew During the First Two-Year Closure of Biosphere 2.” Life Support and Biosphere Science, Vol. 4 No.3/4. pp. 167-178.
Tubiello, F.N., Druitt, J.W., and Marino, B.D.V. 1999. “Dynamics of the Global Water Cycle of Biosphere 2.” Ecological Engineering. 13. pp. 287-300. Elsevier.
Van Thillo, M., W.Dempster, N. Alvarez-Romo, G.M.Hudman, and S.Silverstone. 1999. Appendix A. Addendum. Maintenance & Monitering. Ecological Engineering 13. pp.22-29. Elsevier.
Verdery, R. and R. Walford. 1998. “Changes in Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans During a 2-Year Period of Dietary Restriction in Biosphere 2.” Archive of Internal Medicine. Vol 158. pp. 900-906.
Walford, R., Mock, D., MacCallum, T., Laseter, J. 1999. “Physiologic Changes in Humans Subjected to Sever, Selective Calorie Restriction for Two Years in Biosphere 2: Health, Aging, and Toxicological Perspectives.” Toxicological Sciences (In Press.)
Walford, R.L. and S.R. Spindler. 1997. “The Response to Calorie Restriction in Mammals Shows Features Also Common to Hibernation: A Cross-Adaptation Hypothesis.” Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences. Vol.52A, No. 4. pp. B179-B183.
Walford, R., L. Weber, S. Panov. 1995. Caloric Restriction and Aging Viewed From Biosphere 2. Receptor, Vol 5. pp. 29-33.
Walford, R.L., S.B. Harris, and
M.W. Gunion. 1992. Calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense
diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte
count, cholesterol, and blood
Walford, R. 1990. Biomedical Program
at Space Biospheres Ventures, Biological Life Support
Wetterer, J. K.,
A. G. Himler, and M. M. Yospin. 2002. Forager size, load size, and
resource use in an omnivorous ant, Aphaenogaster albisetosa (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae). Sociobiology 39: 335-343.
Weyer, C., R.L.Walford, I.T.Harper, M.Milner, T. MacCallum, P.A.Tataranni, and E.Ravussin. 2000. “Energy Metabolism After 2 Years of Energy Restriction: The Biosphere 2 Experiment.” American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. No.72, pp. 946-953.
Allen, J. 1991. Biosphere 2: The Human Experiment. Viking/Penguin.
Allen, J. and M. Nelson. 1986. Space Biospheres. Synergetic Press, Inc.
Alling, A., M. Nelson, S. Silverstone. 1993. Life Under Glass: The Inside Story of Biosphere 2. Synergetic Press
Available from Synergetic Press
Augustine, M. 19--. “Biosphere 2: Biotechnology for Earth & Space Habitats.” Biotechnology for Aerospace Applications. Chapter 14, pp 243-256.
Gentry, L. and Karen Liptak. 1991. The Glass Ark: The Story of Biosphere 2. The Biosphere Press.
Gentry, L. 1993. Inside Biosphere 2: The Ocean and Its Reef. The Biosphere Press.
Liptak, K. 1994. Inside Biosphere 2: The Rainforest. The Biosphere Press.
Nelson, M. and W. Dempster. 1996. “Living in Space: Results from Biosphere 2’s Initial Closure, an Early Testbed for Ecological Systems on Mars.” American Astronautical Society. AAS 95-488. Section 1V, Chapter 18. pp. 363-390.
Nelson, M., E.Bass, and L.Leigh. 1993. “Biosphere 2 and the Study of Human/Ecosystem Dynamics.” Humans as Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human effects & Populated Areas. Chapter 22, pp. 280-296.
Nelson, M. and G. Soffen (editors). 1990. Biological Life Support Systems: Commercial Opportunities. Synergetic Press/NASA Conference Publication #3094..
Silverstone, S. 1993. Eating In: From the Field to the Kitchen in Biosphere 2. Synergetic Press
Available from Synergetic Press
Snyder, T. Parrish and Allen, J. (editors). 1985. The Biosphere Catalogue. Synergetic Press.
Vernadsky, V.I. 1986. The Biosphere. Synergetic Press, Inc.
Allen, J., A. Alling, F. El-Baz. 1998. “A Simulation of an Inhabited Biospheric Mars Base to be Constructed and Operated in the Egyptian Sahara.” Presented at The Third International Conference on Life Support and Biospheric Science. Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Florida
Allen, J. Oct. 1993. “Biosphere 2: Education for Spaceship Earth.” Presented at The Alexander Ananoff Invited Lecture, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Graz, Austria. IAF- 93-P.3.367.
Allen, J. April 1992. “Discovering Ecological Laws & Obtaining Data on the Vernadskian Biospheric Hypothesis by Means of Biosphere 2.” Presented at The Third International Workshop on Closed Ecological Systems.
Allen, J. Feb. 1992. “Biosphere 2: Description, Purpose, and Conceptual Design.” International Conference on Life Support & Biosphere Science. Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville.
Allen, J. circa 1990. “On the Taxonomy of Biospheres.”
Allen, J. 19--. “Earth Applications.”
Allen, J., L. Leigh, A. Alling, and T. MacCallum. 1988. “Man in Closed Ecological System.” Space Biosphere Ventures.
Alling, A., M. van Thillo. 2005. "Lessons learned from Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere Closed System Experiments." Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Japan.
Alling, A., M. van Thillo. 2005. “The Mars on Earth® Project: Lessons learned from Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere Closed System Experiments." Presented at The International Conference on Research Highlights & Vanguard Technology on Environmental Engineering in Kanazawa, Japan.
Alling, A. Oct. 1989. “Biophere 2 Test Module Experiment Program.” Space Biospheres Ventures And NASA Workshop.
Alvarez-Romo, N. 1990. “Biosphere 2 Nerve System Hierarchy.” Space Biospheres Ventures.
Augustine, M. 1985. “Biosphere 2.” Presented to National Commission on Space.
Augustine, M. 19--. Rochester Speech.
Augustine, M. 19--. External Tanks Speech.
Burgess, T.L. 1991. “The Lessons of Biosphere 2 for Conservation.” A Presentation for a Conservation Conference at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.
Burgess, T.L. 19--. “Wilderness Research in Biosphere 2.” Presentation to the Science Advisory Board.
Dempster, W. 2005. "Experiences with Tightly Closed Ecological Systems: Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere." Space Exploration, Albuquerque, NM
Dempster, W. and M. Van Thillo. 1993. “Maintenance and Operational Support Characteristics of Biosphere 2.” Invited paper to the Space Programs and Technologies Conference, AAIA, Washington, DC.
Dempster, W. Feb. 1992. "Water Systems of Biosphere 2." International Conference on Life Support & Biosphere Science, Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville.
Dempster, W. 19--. “Advantages of Complete Closure for Long Durations in Experimental Closed Life Systems: Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2.”
Dustan, P. and A. Alling. 1996. Coral Reef Ecosystem of Biosphere 2. Paper presented at Linnean Society, 4th International Conference on Closed Systems, April 10-11, 1996, London.
Frye, R.J. 1992. “Savanna Litter Decomposition as it Effects CO2 in Biosphere 2.”
Frye, R.J. 19--. “Atmospheric Dynamics of Biosphere 2.” Outline.
Hamilton, J. and D. Botkin. 1992. Progress Towards a Carbon Cycle Model of Biosphere 2. Presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Closed Ecological Systems at Space Biospheres Ventures.
MacCallum, T., Leigh, L., and Gore. 19--. “Plant Phenology in Relation to Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emission in Biosphere 2.”
Nelson, M. Nov/Dec. 1993. “Lessons from Bio 2: Life Under Glass as a Window to Mars.” Ad Astra: The Magazine of the National Space Society.
Nelson, M., Alvarez-Romo, N., MacCallum, T. 1990. “The Biosphere 2 Project and its Potential Role in Assisting the Space Exploration Initiative.” Presented at the Innovative Technologies for the Space Exploration Initiative Symposium of the American Astronautical Society, held at Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1990.
Nelson, M. May 1989. “Biosphere 2: Space Station on Earth.” Paper for Space Development Conference, Chicago.
Nelson, M., Hawes, P., and Augustine, M. “Life Systems for a Lunar Base.” Presented at Lunar and Planetary Institute Conference, Houston, Texas. Published in The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century (ed. W. W. Mendell), NASA Conference Publication 3166. Vol.2. pp. 513-518.
Nelson, M. 1988. “Vernadsky and the Biosphere.” Presented at Brown University and Vernadsky Institute Symposium, Brown University, Providence, R.I.
Nelson, M. Aug. 1984. “The Desert Potential.” Speech at the Ecoworld Symposium on History, Ecology, People, Future.
Prance. G. 1996. The Rainforest of Biosphere 2. Paper presented at Linnean Society, 4th International Conference on Closed Systems, April 10-11, 1996, London.
Van Thillo, M., W. Dempster, N. Alvarez-Romo, G. Hudman, T. MacCallum, S. Silverstone, M. Nelson, A. Alling. 1993. "From Theory to Practice: The Initial Two-Year Closure of Biosphere 2." In P.J. Boston, ed. Proceedings of the Case For Mars V Conference, AAS Science and Technology Series.
Odum, E.C. and H.T. Odum. Sim-Bio2, a simulation of Biosphere 2 using EXTEND software, booklet, Center for Environmental Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 15 pp.